Sejarah Singkat Partai Politik Indonesia

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Me-review tentang sejarah parpol di Indonesia dari sejak dulu kala hingga saat sekarang memang penuh liku-liku dan menarik. Tapi yang jelas, sejarah parpol di Indonesia sangat panjang dan menarik untuk kita telusuri. Saya mencoba mereview artikel dari Ningsih yang artikelnya saya ambil dari website PKS-jaksel yang berjudul “PARTAI POLITIK DAN SEJARAHNYA”. Dari artikel itu saya dapat ambil beberapa point penting dari sejarah partai politik di Indonesia. Yang menarik adalah perkembangan dari sebuah organisasi pergerakan nasional yang berubah menjadi partai politik. Dalam artikel tersebut, penulis membagi sejarah parpol di Indonesia menjadi tiga jaman. Yaitu jaman penjajahan Belanda, Jepang serta jaman kemerdekaan. Pada tahun 1908 berdirilah organisasi pergerakan nasional yang ekslusif untuk priyayi yang dikenal sebagai Boedi Oetomo. Yang menjadi embrio pergerakan organisasi lain. Puncaknya antara tahun 1921-1937, bermunculanlah beberapa organisasi-organisasi kemerdekaan. Taruhlah misalnya organisasi Indische Partij (Desember 1912) – partai modern pertama yang tegas memperjuangkan Hindia bagi orang Hindia”, ISDV (Indische Sosial Democratishe Vereninging, Mei 1914), Indische Katholike Partij (November 1918), PKI (Mei 1920), PNI (Juli 1924), Partai Indonesia (April 1931), Partai Rakyat Indonesia (September 1930), Parindra (Januari 1931), dan Gerindo (Mei 1937).
Beberapa organisasi tersebut adalah organisasi yang berasal dari macam-macam ideology misal Islam, sekuler, nasionalis, dan bahkan ada yang berasasakan komunis. Kemunculan ideologi sebagai nilai modern dalam perjuangan mewujudkan Indonesia merdeka yang mendapatkan wadahnya dalam bentuk partai, sangat penting untuk dipahami. Di satu sisi ia menegaskan Indonesia sebagai sebuah bangsa yang sangat majemuk, tapi di sisi yang menunjukan keberagaman kekuatan yang memfasilitasi terwujudnya Indonesia merdeka. Pelajaran penting yang dapat dipetik adalah bahwa Indonesia tidak pernah dibangun di atas satu fondasi atau kaki ideologi yang tunggal. Indonesia membutuhkan sinergi dari berbagai kekuatan yang ada untuk bisa mewujudkan kemerdekaannya. Dalam konteks ini, tulisan awal Bung Karno yang coba “mendamaikan” tiga ideologi besar, yakni Islam, Marxisme dan Nasionalisme merupakan pekerjaan intelektual dan politik yang sangat berharga. Pada 1939 dibentuklah dewan rakyat (Volskraad)-badan bentukan Belanda- yang merupakan badan seperti DPR. Partai/organisasi politik masa itu banyak yang bergabung dalam dewan rakyat, dalam dewan rakyat itu sendiri juga terbentuk beberapa macam fraksi yang merupakan koalisi beberapa partai seperi Fraksi Nasional di bawah pimpinan M. Husni Thamin, PPBB (Perhimpunan Pegawai Bestuur Bumi Putera) di bawah pimpinan Prawoto dan Indonesische Nationale Groep di bawah pimpinan Muhammad Yamin. Juga ada juga gabungan partai diluar dewan rakyat seperti GAPI, MIAI, dan MRI. Pada masa penjajahan Jepang, gerakan partai politik di Indonesia di-disable oleh pemerintah Jepang, hanya Masyumi saja yang boleh beredar di masyarakat.
Selanjutnya pada masa setelah proklamasi antara tahun 1945, setelah dikeluarkanya maklumat no X tanggal 16 Oktober 1945 oleh Moh. Hatta selaku wakil presiden RI, maka bermunculanlah banyak partai di Indonesia. Inilah multi partai system pertama di Indonesia setalah proklamasi. Masa parlementerisme di Indonesia marak pada tahun 1950-1959 yang menjadi titik kejayaan parpol di Indonesia. Munculnya empat partai besar antara lain PNI, Masyumi, NU,dan PKI. Tapi karena banyaknya partai politik pada masa perlementer inilah, cabinet berjalan tidak mulus. Pembangunan yang gagal dan cabinet yang sering berganti-ganti mengakibatkan pada 5 Juli 1959, presiden mengeluarkan dekrit yang mengakhiri masa parlementer di Indonesia. Dekrit ini merupakan jalan keluar dari kemelut di Konstituante yang gagal mencapai kata sepakat mengenai Dasar Negara. Konstituante adalah hasil pemilu 1955 yang oleh banyak kalangan disebutkan sebagai pemilu paling demokratis. Hasil Pemilu 1955 melahirkan konfigurasi ideologis antara pendukung Pancasila sebagai dasar negara dan Islam sebagai dasar negara. Dari 544 anggota Konstituante yang berasal dari 34 Parpol, pendukung Pancasila adalah 274, Islam 230, dan pendukung gagasan ideologi “sosial-ekonomi” 10. Di samping sebagai respons atas kegagalan Konstituante, Dekrit ini sendiri mencerminkan kekecewaan yang luas mengenai perilaku parpol selama periode Demokrasi Liberal (1945 –1957). Kekecewaan ini terungkap dengan baik dalam tulisan Bung Karno dan Bung Hatta pada tahun-tahun ini. Selepas Dekrit, Bung Karno mulai mengambil langkah-langkah penting ke arah penataan parpol. Pada tahun 1959 dikeluarkan Penpres No. 7 yang mengatur mengenai syarat-syarat dan penyederhanaan kepartaian.
Hal ini diikuti oleh keluarnya Penpres No. 13 yang mengatur pengakuan, pengawasan dan pembubaran beberapa partai. PSI dan Masyumi karena keterlibatan sejumlah tokoh utamanya dalam pemberontakan PRRI/Permesta dibubarkan melalui Kepres 128/61. Sementara diberi pengakuan terhadap 8 parpol, masing-masing PNI, NU, Partai Katolik, Partai Indonesia, Murba, PSII, IP-KI dan PKI. Dan melalui Kepres 440/61 diakui Parkindo dan Perti. Sedangkan melalui Kepres 129/61 partai PSSI Abikusno, Partai Rakyat Nasional Bebasa Daeng Lalo, dan Partai Rakyat Nasional Djodi Gondokusumo tidak diakui. Pada 14 April 1961 pemerintah mengeluarkan pengumuman yang hanya mengakui adanya 10 parpol, masing-masing PNI, NU, PKI, PSII, Parkindo, Partai Katolik, Perti, Murba, dan IPKI.             Di antara partai-partai, hanya PKI yang dapat efektif menjalankan fungsinya sebagai parpol selama periode ini karena digunakan Bung Karno sebagai kekuatan penyeimbang AD yang sudah menjadi kekuatan Politik yang utama. Perubahan kepartaian dan diperkenalkannya golongan fungsional diikuti oleh terjadinya perubahan konstelasi politik. Parpol-parpol mengalami masa surut yang serius, sementara parlemen mengalami disfungsi. Perubahan parlemen terpenting terjadi ketika Bung Karno membubarkan parlemen pada 5 Maret 1960 karena adanya penolakan parlemen atas rencana anggaran yang dajukan pemerintah. Hal ini diikuti oleh rencana pendirian DPR-GR yang sesuai dengan konstruksi UUD 45 dimana sebagian anggotanya adalah golongan fungsional. DPR-GR akhirnya dibentuk pada Juli 1960 terlepas dari adanya penentangan sejumlah parpol dan tokoh yang membentuk “liga demokrasi”. Liga ini terdiri dari partai Katolik, Masyumi, PSI dan IPKI yang mendapatkan dukungan dari TNI AD, Bung Hatta, dan sejumlah tokoh NU dan PNI. DPR-GR beranggotakan 263 orang dimana 132nya berasal dari golongan fungsional (7 wakil AD, 7 wakil AU dan AL, 5 polisi dan selebihnya dari organisasi seperti Sobsi, Gerwani, BTI, Sarpubri, Pemuda rakyat, dan sebagainya).
Berakhirnya masa parlementer di Indonesia, juga berarti dimulainya system baru di negara ini, yaitu masa demokrasi terpimpin. Masa ini adalah masa dimana kekuatan presiden sangat kuat, terbukti dengan slogan NASAKOM-nya, Soekarno memperkuat tiga partai sebagai inti dari slogan tersebut. Partai itu adalah NU, PNI dan PKI. Yang paling menonjol adalah PKI yang menguasai mayoritas suara rakyat Indonesia kala itu. Tapi akhirnya setelah G/30/S/PKI, PKI dicap sebagai partai terlarang, karena mencoba mengambil alih pemerintahan. Tapi kudeta yang dilakukan PKI diredam oleh Soeharto yang kala itu mendapat mandat berupa supersemar untuk menumpas PKI dan kroni-kroninya.
Setelah Soeharto mendapat jabatan sebagai presiden RI dengan mengeser Soekarno, maka dimulailah masa orde baru yang dipimpinnya. Jaman itu memunculkan organisasi non-partai yang bernama Golongan Karya, yang lebih mengejutkan lagi pada pemilu 1971, Golkar mendapat suara terbanyak mengalahkan NU, Parmusi, dan PNI. Tahun 1973 mulailah Indonesia menyederhanakan parpol menjadi tiga, yaitu dua parpol dan satu golongan. Parpol yang berideologi Islam dikumpulakn menjadi Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP), partai beraliran nasionalis dan beberapa partai non-islam dijadikan satu menjadi Partai Demokrasi Indonesia. Sedangkan satu golongan sisa adalah Golkar yang merupakan penyokong Soeharto dalam menguasai Indonesia.
Tahun 1998, setelah gelombang reformasi terjadi di Indonesia yang ditandai dengan tumbangnya rezim Soeharto, maka pemilu dengan sistem multi partai kembali terjadi di Indonesia. Tidak hanya lima atau 10 partai saja, tetapi karena aspirasi rakyat yang beragam dan ideology yang berbeda maka sejak tahun 2004 peserta pemilu bak jamur di musim hujan, alias munculnya tak terbendung. Inilah gambaran euphoria demokrasi Indonesia yang dulu sangat dikekang, lalu tiba-tiba dilepaskan begitu saja, mengakibatkan pluralitas partai yang luar biasa macamnya.

Sejarah Partai Politik di Indonesia

Pada tahun 1939 di Hindia Belanda telah terdapat beberapa fraksi dalam volksraad yaitu Fraksi Nasional, Perhimpunan Pegawai Bestuur Bumi-Putera, dan Indonesische Nationale Groep. Sedangkan di luar volksraad ada usaha untuk mengadakan gabungan dari Partai-Partai Politik dan menjadikannya semacam dewan perwakilan nasional yang disebut Komite Rakyat Indonesia (K.R.I). Di dalam K.R.I terdapat Gabungan Politik Indonesia (GAPI), Majelisul Islami A’laa Indonesia (MIAI) dan Majelis Rakyat Indonesia (MRI). Fraksi-fraksi tersebut di atas adalah merupakan partai politik – partai politik yang pertama kali terbentuk di Indonesia.

Selama Jepang berkuasa di Indonesia, kegiatan Partai Politik dilarang, kecuali untuk golongan Islam yang membentuk Partai Majelis Syuro Muslimin Indonesia (MASYUMI).
Setelah merdeka, Indonesia menganut sistem Multi Partai sehingga terbentuk banyak sekali PArtai Politik. Memasuki masa Orde Baru (1965 – 1998), Partai Politik di Indonesia hanya berjumlah 3 partai yaitu Partai Persatuan Pembangunan, Golongan Karya, dan Partai Demokrasi Indonesia. Di masa Reformasi, Indonesia kembali menganut sistem multi partai.
Peraturan perundang-undangan yang mengatur tentang Partai Politik di Indonesia sejak masa merdeka adalah:
1. Maklumat X Wakil Presiden Muhammad Hatta (1955)
2. Undang-Undang Nomor 7 Pnps Tahun 1959 tentang Syarat-Syarat dan Penyederhanaan Kepartaian
3. Undang-Undang Nomor 13 Tahun 1960 tentang Pengakuan, Pengawasan, dan Pembubaran Partai-Partai
4. Undang-Undang Nomor 3 tahun 1975 tentang Partai Politik dan Golongan Karya
5. Undang-Undang Nomor 3 tahun 1985 tentang Perubahan Atas Undang-Undang Nomor 7 Tahun 1975 tentang Partai Politik dan Golongan Karya
6. Undang-Undang Nomor 2 Tahun 1999 tentang Partai Politik
7. Undang-Undang Nomor 31 Tahun 2002 tentang Partai Politik
8. Undang-Undang Nomor 2 Tahun 2008 tentang Partai Politik (berlaku saat ini)

Sejarah Partai Politik Dulu, Sekarang dan yang akan Datang


a. Pemilu 1955

Pemilihan Umum 1955 adalah pemilihan umum pertama di Indonesia clan diadakan pada tahun 1955. Pemilu ini sering dikatakan sebagai pemilu Indonesia yang paling demokratis. Pemilu ini bertujuan untuk memilih anggota-anggota DPR dan Konstituante yang akan membentuk UUD baru. Ada 260 kursi DPR dan 520 kursi ditambah 14 wakil golongan minoritas untuk konstituante yang diperebutkan. Pemilu yang dipersiapkan di bawah pemerintahan Perdana Menteri Ali Sastroamidjojo dilangsungkan dalam dua tahap yaitu tahap pertama pada 29 September 1955 yang diikuti 29 partai untuk memilih anggota DPR dan tahap kedua pada 15 Desember 1955 untuk memilih anggota Konstituante. Lima besar pemilu ini adalah Partai Nasional Indonesia 57 kursi DPR dan 119 kursi Konstituante, Masyumi 57 kursi DPR dan 112 kursi Konstituante, Nahdlatul Ulama 45 kursi DPR dan 91 kursi Konstituante, dan Partai Komunis Indonesia 39 kursi DPR dan 80 kursi Konstituante. Pemilu 1955 tidak dilanjutkan lima tahun berikutnya karena berlakunya Dekrit Presiden 5 Juli 1959 yang membubarkan Konstituante serta pembubaran DPR hasil Pemilu 1955 pada 4 Juni 1960 yang digantikan oleh DPR-Gotong Royong dan MPRS yang anggotanya diangkat Presiden Soekarno.
b. Pemilu Orde Baru tahun 1971-1977
Selama masa Orde Baru, pemilu berlangsung sebanyak enam kali dari 1971 hingga 1997. Pemilu 1971 diseienggarakan pada 5 Juli 1971 dengan peserta 10 partai politik dan merupakan pemilu pertama setelah berdirinya orde baru. Pemilu ini bertujuan memilih anggota DPR serta anggota DPRD tingkat I Propinsi dan tingkat II Kabupaten/Kota se-Indonesia. Untuk Propinsi Irian Jaya, ini rnerupakan pemilu pertama bagi mereka setelah bergabung dengan Indonesia pada 1963. Lima besar dalam Pemilu ini adalah Golongan Karya, Nahdlatul Ulama, Parmusi, Partai Nasional Indonesia, clan Partai Syarikat Islam Indonesia.
Pemilu 1977 diawali dengan fusi (penggabungan) partai-partai politik melalui UU Nomor 3 Tahun 1975 yang menghasilkan dua partai politik (Partai Persatuan Pembangunan dan Partai Demokrasi Indonesia) dan satu Golongan Karya. Selama pemilu Orde Baru berikutnya hingga 1998, pemilu hanya diikuti oleh tiga partai ini. Pemilu 1977 diselenggarakan secara serentak pada tanggal 2 Mei 1977 untuk memilih anggota DPR dan DPRD tingkat I da.n II. Pemilu ini dunenangkan oleh Golongan Karya. Pemilihan umum pada 1982, 1987, dan 1992 diselenggarakan untuk memilih anggota DPR dan DPRD tingkat I dan ILKetiga pemilu ini dimenangkan oleh Golongan Karya.
Pemilu 1997 diselenggarakan pada 29 Mei 1997 untuk memilih anggota DPR dan DPRD tingkat I dan II. Pemilu ini dimenangkan oleh Golongan Karya. Pemilu ini merupakan pemilu terakhir pada masa Orde Baru. sumber philosophiaofdikaiosune.com

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